Ergot and ergotism by G. Barger, , Gurney and Jackson edition, in English. 16 George Barger, Ergot and Ergotism: A monograph Based on the England Historic, Geneological Society (Boston: Samuel G. Drake, ). flour or grain used for example in bread or for brewing beer, the ergot alkaloids may lead to the hor- rible disease called Barger G () Ergot and Ergotism.

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You can choose to delete your My CABI account from your profile page, in which case, all your information will be deleted from our servers. The F.barger Virgin appeared in September with a host of angels and in Notre Dame of Soissons persons were cured of the holy fire within a fortnight, and also three girls whose limbs were twisted 34 ; convulsive symptoms were evidently rare.

The slower intoxication in the other case was not followed by uniformly serious results, since only two children suffered from gangrene. Out of patients more than died between September and March – About three-fifths of the patients were under 15 years of age.

The Saxon epidemic was also dealt with by Wedel and by Wilisch. Later authors Wichmann, Hecker have distinguished a milder form, which might pass off in a few weeks without preventing the patients from following their ordinary occupations. The same is found in almost all attempts to procure abortion see p.

Commodities and Products see more detailsmilk products milk products Subject Category: He even gives the peculiar advice to wash such contaminated ergot with dilute potash and then to feed it to cattle.

The cries of those in pain and the shedding of burned up limbs alike excited pity; the stench of rotten flesh was unbearable; many were however cooled by the sprinkling of holy water and snatched from mortal peril 8. The Botanicon is rare and the only copy which I have been able to trace is in the Conservatoire Botanique of the city of Geneva; it belonged to de Candolle. According to Nature8th Septemberp. In France ergot was identified as the cause of gangrene by Dodart in This almost exclusive use of the new rye explains the sudden outbreaks of ergotism immediately after the harvest.

Its action was considered to be more rapid and more powerful than any other similar agent, but it lost its action on keeping. Martialis, by Ademar de Chabannes, circa ; Bouquet, x. Hussa described a particularly severe attack in a boy who had not eaten bread for six months and then consumed a large quantity containing 17 per cent, of ergot.

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It is also referred to in a letter of the French ambassador Campredon, dated 29th Januaryand published by the Imperial Historical Society of St Petersburg in 1S85, here quoted from Robert Historische Studieni. Inwhen gangrenous ergotism was observed in France, the convulsive type appeared extensively in northern Germany, Holstein and Sweden. In Germany ergot seems at first to have been identified with the corn mother, as the old name Rockenmutter implies [Thalius ; Schwenckfelt ; Stocker ].

Ergot and ergotism. ( edition) | Open Library

They both devoted a separate section to this subject respectively pp. Balardini, in reporting early experiments with ergot [], mentioned that midwives had used it in Italy for generations. The vast literature of modern times clearly shows the existence of two distinct types of ergot poisoning, the convulsive and the gangrenous, respectively east and west of the Rhine.

First illustration of Ergot 4.

In this dissertation p. The reverse was the case in those German districts which were subject to convulsive ergotism. In the south maize later fulfilled the same function Meier. Thus the percentage of ergot in the flour was multiplied, and within six days the father and three children died ; the mother alone survived. Brunner thus saw both kinds of ergotism in the same patient. Obstetrical use of ergot in the eighteenth century. Further names connected with folk-lore seem to be: Later writers on the history ergkt ergotism did not have similar opportunities of observing an epidemic themselves.

In other Lorraine epidemics both sets of symptoms are mentioned, see below. This passage has been dealt with at length, because it illustrates the difficulties of identifying ergot in classical writings; it also shows eegotism Galen was fully aware of the dangers of poisonous corn, and of the need of cleaning it.

Planer, the pupil of quite b.barger Camerarius Rudolphus Jacobus, famous for his discovery of sex in plants.

The only cereal incriminated was rye, which in was often ergotised to the extent of one- eighthin one district more than half the grain was ergot. Walker describes patients who suffered from ergotism Fig.

Ergot and ergotism.

Many more cases occurred in September and October and were often rapidly fatal ; later, the disease took a less rapid course. Ex Chronico Saxonico,Bouquet, x. He reported that he had also lost his nails three years before, and that a few relatives and neighbours were similarly affected.

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At the time when ergot was being introduced into official medicine in the United States, the information given about it in the Edinburgh Medical and Physical Dictionary [], by R.

The association of thcriomorphic and anthropomorphic demons with corn has been studied by Mannhardt in his Roggcnwolf und Roggenhund [] and Kornddmonen []; when the corn waved in the wind, the corn mother was said to pass through the field ; her children were the rye wolves and ergot was of her making. Plures tamen Parisius in Ecclesia sanctae Dei genetricis Marise sanati sunt, adeo ut quotquot i! Photograph due to Prof. It was described in considerable detail by Boucher [] and is remarkable in several respects.

About this time some cases in St Annaberg in Saxony led to much controversy, as is reflected in such a title as Opisthotonus dcemoniacus dclucc- datus et defensus. Michell [J states that the oldest thatch consisted of rye straw in counties where rye was then no longer grown.

In Sweden ergotised barley and oats? All suffered from severe convulsions, lasting a month; Bonjean also investigated gangrenous ergotism in a family near Chambery in November Trespca wild grass, particularly abundant among the rye in those villages where slovenly agriculture was associated with ergotism. A11 epidemic at Leksand in was due to oats containing 22 per cent, of Bromus secalinus.

The last German epidemic of any considerable extent occurred near Frankenburg in Upper Hessen in the autumn ofwith further outbreaks in the spring of and The shedding of the epidermis of the trunk was also observed by Ilussa, of nails by Heusinger both in convulsive ergotism. They were swollen, devoid of sensation and mortified, as is apt to happen in confirmed gangrene.

By far the most accurate data have been supplied by Bonjean, and relate to sporadic cases of both forms of ergotism.